An endometrial polyp is a localised overgrowth of the endometrium, which projects into the uterine cavity and is attached by a pedicle. It can be either sessile (broad-based) or pedunculated (on a narrow stalk), and can be single or multiple.
The incidence of polyps rises steadily with increasing age and it varies according to population studied.
- Endometrial polyps are common, with a prevalence of 10–24% of women undergoing hysterectomy.
- Associated with abnormal uterine bleeding in 25% of cases
- Most gynaecologists recommend removal of endometrial polyps.
- Almost all polyps are benign with malignant changes reported in <1% of cases of endometrial polyps.
- The incidence of polyps rises steadily with increasing age.
- The risk of malignancy in polyps increases with age and carries a risk of 2.3% in symptomatic postmenopausal women (0.3% if asymptomatic)
Identification of a polyp at hysteroscopy
- have a reddish appearance similar to the surrounding endometrium
- are soft and can be indented with the tip of the optic (unlike a fibroid)
- move with the movement of liquid distending solution (unlike a fibroid).