1. Systemic or institutionalised racism
Systemic or institutionalised racism entails differential access to opportunities including material conditions (e.g. education, housing, healthcare, employment) and power (e.g. information, representation, voting rights, media control) in society which is embedded in history, law, practice and institutions. Institutionalised racism may be described as systemic, with a faceless perpetrator.
2. Interpersonal racism
Interpersonal racism entails prejudice in thought and discrimination in action based on perception of race. This form of racism can be intentional or unintentional, and can occur through acts of omission or commission. This is a commonly-held perception of what racism is. Microaggression is a form of interpersonal racism.
3. Internalised racism
Internalised racism occurs when a racially minoritised individual accepts negative messages about their abilities and worth, and may adapt their behaviour and beliefs to match the predominant narrative. Internalised racism manifests as an inferiority complex, self-degradation, resignation, hopelessness, rejection of one’s identity or culture in an attempt to assimilate.