The section on viral infections discusses rubella and parvovirus, cytomegalovirus, varicella, hepatitis, influenza and zika infection.
|Viral infection||Aetiology||Implications in pregnancy||Diagnostic test|
|Rubella||Rubella virus||Sensorineural deafness, diabetes mellitus, thyroid disease, growth hormone deficiency, vascular effects, encephalitis||Serological tests for IgG-specific antibodies|
|Parvovirus||Human parvovirus B19||Fetal anaemia||Serological tests for specific antibodies|
|CMV||Cytomegalovirus||Miscarriage, congenital CMV infection||Serological tests for specific antibodies|
|Varicella||Varicella-zoster virus||Severe maternal morbidity and mortality, fetal varicella syndrome||Serological tests for specific antibodies|
|Hepatitis||Hepatitis B/C virus||Neonatal hepatitis||Serological tests for specific antibodies|
|Influenza||Influenza virus (A, B and C)||Severe maternal morbidity and mortality, preterm labour, low birthweight||Serological tests for specific antibodies|
|Zika||Zika virus||Probable association with congenital microcephaly||PCR testing of blood during the symptomatic period|
|COVID-19 (SARS-COV-2)||Sarbecovirus||Currently no data suggesting an increased risk of miscarriage or early pregnancy loss in relation to COVID-19||Detection of IgG and IgM antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in human whole blood, serum and plasma.|
The following review article provides a good overview to the diagnosis and management of cytomegalovirus, human parvovirus B19, toxoplasma Gondi, rubella and varicella-zoster virus.