Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis cause around 25% of cases of PID in the UK. Gardnerella vaginalis, anaerobes and other organisms commonly found in the vagina, such as cytomegalovirus, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum have also be implicated.
|Definite causative agents||Possible causative agents|
|Neisseria gonorrhoea (found in 14% of PID cases)||Mycoplasma hominis|
|Chlamydia trachomatis (around 10% of cases)||Mycoplasma genitalium|
|Gardnerella vaginalis||Ureaplasma urealiticum|
|Anaerobes (e.g. Bacteroides sp.)|
Culture of organisms depends on:
- source of sampling (cervix/endometrium/tubes)
- swab technique
- sensitivity of the microbiological technique.
Where cultures are taken from the upper genital tract, no organism is isolated in 20% of women. With swabs from the cervix and vagina, the culture rate is lower still.